Producer Mark Hornsby

Mark Hornsby is an acclaimed music producer, audio engineer, musician, writer and marketing consultant – widely considered to be one of the most diverse figures in today’s music business.

Mark is the former co-owner of one of Florida’s largest recording and rehearsal studios – Ridenour Studios – whose clients included New Found Glory, Foreigner, Ricky Martin, Joey Kramer, Steve Winwood and Johnny Depp.

As a producer, engineer and sound designer Mark moved on to work with acts from all over the world, consulting in A+R and marketing for numerous music companies and record labels, while also consulting on software development for a variety of high-profile audio technology companies. Mark is a certified Pro Tools Expert, accredited by Avid.

Recently, Mark has found that his experience in both music production and the business side of the industry often enables him to help artists take themselves and their music to new levels. This has taken him all over the United States to appear as a guest speaker at colleges offering music and music technology courses.

Mark is also a regular contributing writer for Recording Magazine, who featured his work at Abbey Road Studios in London as their front cover story in October 2010. He has had the opportunity to work with a wide range of artists, musicians, and companies in various capacities, including:

Jon Anderson, IK Multimedia,Travis Tritt,Kat Bowser,The Hoppers,Jerry Marotta,EchoXS,Lifeway,Ronnie Brookshire,Carolyn Martin,Steven Curtis Chapman,Sonic Reality,The Judds,Nick D’Virgilio,Richard Sterban,Leticia Wolf,Steve Green,Ashlyn Metheny,Rewiring Genesis, Porter Wagner, The Jordanaires, Neal Peart, Kevin Gilbert, Dream Makers Music, Word Entertainment, Projecto 151, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, Ricky Tims, Kitty Wells, The Carolinas, Gallus, Dolly Parton, The Titan Hot Seven

Out of all the interviews I have posted so far, Mark’s interview touches upon the most important aspect, the very core essence of it all… the music! Mark has a vast knowledge in the topics we cover, including the acoustic differences of recording rooms, mic techniques, the importance of capturing a sound that is authentic and able to be played live, how to be prepared for the studio, networking, studio funding and what a great sounding album can do for your career. I highly recommend that you spend some time reading this one! Thanks again Mark for agreeing to do this, it is always a pleasure! Aaron Bethune.

Interview with Mark Hornsby:

How did you get started in the music and entertainment industry?

I must have screwed up somewhere! I guess I started when I was 12 years old. The church I attended growing up was televised and I got asked to run sound for the broadcast mix. So on the first day, the guy said, “Okay, this is really simple. Here’s all you got to do. Here’s the order of the service. Here’s when the music happens, when the music stops. All I need you to do is when the music’s not on, mute it and when the music’s on, un-mute it. When the pastor stops talking, turn the music back on, etc. You need to watch these two meters right here and make sure they don’t go in the red. If they do go in the red, take the master fader and turn it down a little.” So I said, “Okay, cool I can handle this.” Through the whole service I kept my eyes glued on those meters. At the end, he said, “You did a great job. I’d like to have you come back next week.” After I commented about the multiple sets of meters he had and what all they did, he said “Hopefully I’ll have this pair fixed by next weekend,” and he pointed to the pair that I had been looking at. The whole time I was sitting there looking at the wrong set of meters and I had no idea. That experience taught me a lesson: if somebody is going to pay you a compliment, don’t back out of it.

How did it go from doing sound on a Sunday to making this your living?

Long story short, I grew up playing sports and music, and by the time I got to high school, I decided that music is where I wanted to concentrate. So, by 15, I was trying to figure out, “How do I work and make a living in the music business?” I didn’t know a lot about it. I was a guitar player and all my older musician friends I’d seen get out of high school– they were either making little to no money or playing wedding bands on the weekends. That was all fine and good but it didn’t interest me, so I did my homework and realized I could get into the production-end of this thing. After the couple of years doing the church broadcast thing, I got into doing independent live sound, and ended up getting a job at a CBS affiliate right when I was getting out of high school. I had a lot of audio production experience and all the music experience from playing. I figured if I put those together, I could work behind the scenes on records.

This was before the days of 600 plus audio schools in the US… SAE, FullSail, all these great accessible places to learn about ProTools and what not. We didn’t have any of that back then. My parents wanted me to get a traditional degree, so I basically had three options for a degree in audio engineering: Middle Tennessee State in Murfreesboro, Tennessee; the University of Miami, which is a more technical-based program; or Berklee School of Music, which is more on the music side of things. I grew up in Tennessee, so MTSU was obviously the cheaper choice and they concentrated a lot in theory which was of great interest to me. In November of whatever year that was – I drove down there, checked out the program, took a tour of the place, and was on campus in a dorm room by January working on a Bachelor’s of Science in audio production. While in school I started my own live production company. By the time I got into the recording credits for the degree program, the company I owned had 2 or 3 employees and the business could run itself. Basically, I could keep my bills paid and concentrate on music production. This freedom led to me getting a job at Seventeen Grand Recording on Music Row (Nashville).

So by the time I graduated college, I had my own production company and I was working as an assistant engineer in one of the best studios in Nashville. That led to independent engineering, going out and doing overdubs for people and really starting to branch out on my own. Then in about 1999, country music took a bit of a crash. I remember working 60 hours a week for the first half of that year and maybe 60 hours total for the back half of that year. This is around the time when all the labels had been chasing the Shania Twain formula and it had gotten to the point that everybody was turning out music that sounded exactly the same. This happens all the time, it’s a cyclical thing, but at that point it crashed and it crashed hard. Everybody started pinching their pennies, quit putting out records. Studios started closing. What was I going to do now?

I had an opportunity to go to Ft. Lauderdale and do some work. So I ended up moving to South Florida. Through a strange turn of events, two college friends of mine, an entertainment attorney and I ended up owning a recording and rehearsal facility in Ft. Lauderdale. It was 8000 square feet and had two recording studios, five rehearsal rooms, a 2000 square-foot sound stage, an instrument repair shop and an electronic repair shop all under one roof. It did pretty well for us, so we ran that for several years. In 2005, a Hurricane Wilma came along and ripped the roof off of it, flooded it, totally took it down and us out of business. We all parted ways at that point. One of us kept part of the business, I got out completely, someone else kept the name. We worked it out amongst ourselves, and I moved back to Nashville and now I’ve been back here for five years. That’s the Readers’ Digest version.

What are some of the biggest differences you’ve seen in this business?

The technology has definitely changed, everybody knows that. I think Avid has finally gotten to the point in which people that don’t know anything about music production know the name ProTools. It’s synonymous with “Studio Magic” to people that don’t know anything. I’m talking about people that sell insurance for a living – that have nothing to do with what we do. So it’s been put on the radar for a lot of people outside our industry.

A lot of things are done on the computer. I was fortunate when I started out in this business, it was still analog tape, ADAT had come on the scene. The first ProTools system I worked on was built in ’93. At that point we had a 256MB hard-drive and we would fly one vocal track in at a time. I remember working on this live George Strait project where we’d fly in the lead vocal track, and we had the very first version of AutoTune, and we’d fix a note, fix another note, and then fly it back. It was a daylong process.

I think the mentality has changed a lot too. When you think of your classic records, if you really go back, it was all about capturing a performance. We didn’t have many other choices. There was no “I’m going to fix it later.” And now today’s younger generation, not all of them, but a lot of them, they have the approach of record, record, record, and we’ll just fix it later. That doesn’t work for me. It might be fun and they might enjoy that but 90% of what makes a great record is capturing a performance-not manufacturing one after the fact. So, yeah, the mentality has changed a bit. It’s also in the marketing – you walk into a Guitar Center and tell the guy behind the counter “I want to record this and want to sound like that,” and they’ve got a product that’s been marketed to do just that. It’s totally a different perspective.

What would be the major reasons to go into a professional studio over a home-recording set-up?

I’ll answer that first with my dental analogy. If you needed to have your teeth worked on, would you be comfortable with going out and buying a set of dental tools and doing it yourself? Of course not. It’s the same thing with music. If your time is valuable, like a lot of people’s time is these days, I like to think mine is, it’s time versus money. Take Photoshop, for example. I’m not a graphic designer – I know how to use Photoshop – but I don’t try to create images for artists I’m working with. I have other professionals I turn to. I’d rather have someone who spends 3 or 4 hours on it and does a magnificent job do the work and pay them, versus me spend 15 or 20 hours on it and come up with something half as good.

As far as making music is concerned, you have to think about music and the creative process, which comes from one side of the brain. When you’re sitting there trying to figure out why there’s a delay when you’re trying to record on your laptop and why your computer keeps crashing, that triggers the other side of the brain, and totally distracts you from being creative and whatever vibe or moment you were in. I think it can be very limiting. A friend of mine says he used to tell people all the time that if you’re going to make a record, get out of town and do it. That’s not always feasible for people, but I like the idea – get away from anything that’s distracting, whether it’s the technology or the people around you. Just an environment that is a little more inspiring or someplace new can go a long way. A professional recording studio can be one of those places.

What about the room, what kind of difference does that make?

Rooms are definitely a part of it. Abbey Road for example is a very unique sounding room. Is it the best audiophile sounding room I’ve been in? No, I don’t think so. It is very cool and familiar sounding because we’ve heard a lot of records that have been recorded there. To me the word ‘room’ is synonymous with the word ‘acoustics’. A great room is preferable. You don’t have to have a multi-million dollar building, but you need to be educated on the environment or house, or wherever you’re going to be working. A quick answer to your question, I think rooms are great, rooms are important, rooms are characters, just like microphones are characters. It’s all different paints on the palette but at the end of the day, it’s not about the room or the building, it’s about “How is this drum set? What kind of tones is it giving off and how is it reacting with it’s environment?” When you set it up, you can listen and decide if it is good or bad, and then proceed accordingly. Sometimes a rehearsal space is great-where everybody’s playing live in one big room and you’re using packing blankets and some baffles to isolate some stuff so that you have control over it later. There’s lots of different ways to slice that.

What could great-sounding recording do for an artist’s career?

A lot of people would argue that it can’t do anything and I don’t agree with that. MP3’s have proven that convenience is more important to consumers than quality. The SACD-DVD audio 5.1 thing that came out about the time the MP3 thing started rearing it’s head. Now, how many retail stores do you know of that sell a 5.1 disc or a 5.1 player? Apple and iTunes have played a large role in really dictating where the business is going. There are so many recordings out there that are mediocre, and people are used to hearing that. Some of it is budget-related, and some of it that people just aren’t educated, or the people working on the recordings aren’t educated. Every now and then, there’s something that rises above all that. People that have been in the business for a while, they recognize that, and as far as the industry is concerned, that is important for the artist. It’s going to get them recognition, it’s going to raise somebody’s eyebrows, it’s going to make someone listen to it again, which is ultimately what you want. As far as the general public, it’s hard to say – there’s groups of people out there who are really into vinyl and stuff like that. Vinyl sales in 2009 were up about 30%. Granted vinyl as a medium in general has gone down tremendously, but an increase like that shows that there still are trends and customers who care about what they’re listening to. There’s also audiences that get mad when stuff technically sounds bad-like Metallica’s Death Magnetic record. Do you remember that whole controversy?

At the same time Metallica released Death Magnetic, Activision released the Guitar Hero version of it. The fans started noticing that the Guitar Hero version, sonically, sounded better than the CD release. I won’t get into the reasons why that happened but a lot of people were mad about the way the album sounded. The whole thing is very loud, and the majority of it is distorted – beyond the usual passable, occasional clipping. There’s sections of songs where it really bears down and it hurts to listen to it. A petition went around online, and I think something like 30 or 40 thousand people signed it to get them to remix the record. This happened with rock music, which is one of the genres you would think people would care the least. That event actually showed that at least several thousand people would raise their hand and say, “No this is unacceptable. You’re the largest rock band in the world and this sucks. You should do better. No excuses.” I thought that was impressive. Obviously the band didn’t agree, and their management didn’t agree – I’m not going to get into who’s right and wrong on that but I will say that as a fan, I too was disappointed. I do a lot of lectures at universities on music technology and the question of loudness always comes up. That’s the example I use now. I’ll pull up a cut from that Metallica record, and I’ll pull up a cut off one of their earlier records, Master of Puppets. I level match them in ProTools and play them back. They’re off considerably in volume, it’s ridiculous. It’s like a 12dB difference. But when you level match them and listen to them, hands-down the recording from 1986 sounds ten times better. It’s not fatiguing to listen to and it’s not distorted. The point being, at the end of the day, louder isn’t better, it’s just louder.

Do artists benefit from networking?

Relationships are everything. It’s true in so many businesses-I love the clichéd phrase from the movie Jerry Maguire, “The key to this business is personal relationships”. It’s about building a team around you; building that trust factor with people. I always say, when people want to work with me, my preference is good people or good music-preferably both. A lot of times, it may be something musical that doesn’t strike my fancy, but if I can take it up one or two notches or take it to another level and I really connect with the artist on a personal level, then sure, I’ll go to bat for them.

We’re overhyped by emails and Facebook messages… we hit delete, delete delete. But when a friend of ours calls us or emails us personally, saying “I want you to check this out, I think it’s really cool.” That’s what makes us stop and listen. It’s that personal connection. It goes a long way.

What do you feel are the other elements an artist needs to have as part of their product to go out there and pitch it?

A business plan. It’s not the individual pieces; it’s the sum of them. The sum of them is the long-term goal, your long-term plan. What I tell people (I recently wrote a blog on this) is it’s what I call working backwards. Start off with the end-all goal. Why is this group of musicians coming together?. Why are you doing it? Is it to have fun? Is it to make money? Is it that you want a record deal? You don’t care about a record deal? You want to do your own thing and tour regionally and sell product? Identify what the goals are and from there, sit down and say, okay, what are the critical success factors that are necessary in order for us to achieve those goals? If you just want to play for fun, then it’s probably a shorter list than a band that wants to make money or pursue a record deal.

If you want a record deal, you need good recordings, imagery, photography, graphic design-everything. You need every representation of you and your product to be as good as it can be. Those are the kinds of things that would be on that list. Once you identify all those things, you need to prioritize them. What do you need to do first? Don’t go in the studio if you’re not done writing songs. A lot of bands will say, “We’ve got this 10-song album, and we’ve got eight good ones; we’re going to go ahead and start recording, and we’ll hash out the other two while we’re in there.” Don’t do that. Write 20 songs, go play them live, talk to your fans, and find out what they like. Get out of your opinion or headspace; because it’s not what you think, it’s what they think. Then use that to narrow it down, and go play those songs a whole bunch – practice, practice, practice and then go into the studio. Your studio time will cost a lot less and you will come up with a lot better product. So many other things will go a lot smoother if they are planned out ahead of time.

How many of the artists you work with are able to match live what they’ve done in the studio? Is this the norm?

All of the artists that I have produced match live what they have done in the studio. If I sign on to produce a project, I’m interested in capturing an artist’s sound. I’m not interested in making it sound like something else or manufacturing a product. As a producer and engineer I have two separate work flows. On the engineering side of the fence, I have clients that send me hard drives asking me to fix stuff and make stuff sound better. Yeah, I do that, it’s part of what you do for a living if you choose this line of work. But if my name is going on it as a creative director, my goal is for the listener to be able to throw it up on a set of speakers, get familiar with it, and then go watch the artist do the same thing live. To have that same experience. People are not stupid. If they go hear an artist live, love it, buy the CD and take it home and it’s nothing like the live show, then they’re mad, and don’t listen to it anymore. And vice versa: If someone downloads a song, it sounds really good and they go watch the artist live and the artist can’t pull it off, then they get disappointed.

If anybody thinks they’re doing themselves a favor by manufacturing music that just sounds good in the studio, they’re not doing themselves any favors. Granted, that’s fine if your only goal is just to make a cool sounding recording. But for the touring artist, it’s hard enough to make people buy a CD. So, it’s more important than ever to have integrity.

Who in the music industry is making the money? Where?

People who are willing to diversify, think outside of the box, and check their ego at the door. I work on records, do consulting, do marketing work, produce shows… I do a lot of different stuff to keep me busy. I enjoy the diversity of all this. I’m extremely busy, and part of it is because I stay diverse and part of it is I try not to let anything go out the door unless the client is 110% happy.

Its just like some bands who will swear off doing cover songs. What’s up with the ego? If you know the song, play it…anything you got to do to claw your way to the top. If you’ve got to play Brown Eyed Girl, go play Brown Eyed Girl. There’s a lot of ways to move ahead as a band. Sometimes bands get stuck on the image thing, they won’t let go of that, and it prohibits them from taking advantage of opportunities that are right in front of them and they don’t even know it.

How do you value studio time?

That’s an open-ended question – but I’ll take a shot at it. In 2009 there were approx ¼ million records released in the US. The statistic I read said somewhere in the neighbourhood of only 3000 of those records sold 5000 copies or more, only 10 or 12 did over a million. That’s some scary numbers compared to what the music business used to be. But what that number tells us is that most acts aren’t selling over 5000 records, most of your independent acts are making money off merch and live shows.

So, in terms of studio time, we have to keep things in perspective in order to build a long term relationship with a client or artist. Let’s work the money backwards from those numbers. For example: Based on previous sales, your band is on track to probably sell 5000 copies of their next release. Let’s assume that the band wants to make a profit on their albums. We live in a digital world, so let’s focus on that. Aside from units sold at shows with merch, iTunes and other digital outlets pay out about 60%. On a $9.99 album, you clear about $6, that’s $30,000 on sales of 5000 digital records. So, if there’s $30,000 to deal with and the band wants to make a return on the money they are spending to record the album, they need to decide if they want to make a 100% return on their investment or do they want to make a 50% return on their investment? Let’s say it’s 100% return. If that’s the case, the band has a $15,000 budget to complete their next album. Recording, mixing, mastering, photography, graphic design-the whole nine yards.

I’ve seen a lot of bands with 5-10 grand to cut a record. What do I charge? Well, you can do an album for 5 grand, you can do an EP for 5 grand, you can do 2 songs for 5 grand. How much time and energy are you going to put into it? You’ve got 3 options: quick, cheap, good – pick two.

There are a lot of people that have their day rate. From the top of the top of the industry, you’ve got guys like Chris Lord Alge that are mixing songs every day at $10,000 per song to guys or girls right out of SAE. Everyone wants to come up with a day-rate, and I think it’s getting harder and harder to do that. All you can do is build a resume of work, and then connect with the artist, figure out what the artist’s budget is and then come up with a win-win scenario.

Where do you find most artists that you work with get their funding?

Some of them save up their own money or still have part-time jobs. A lot of them go out and sell merch or copies of their last CD and they keep the money and reinvest it. Some of them borrow it, some of them put a business plan together, some of them win it in contests. It comes from all kinds of places. I’m not saying any of these options are good or bad, I’m just saying they are options. People get capital from a lot of different places. A bank is the last place to give you money to record an album.

When I was in college and started my production company, it started doing really well and I felt I needed to expand it. I remember going down to my bank and talking to them about a business loan. I was 19; they didn’t laugh at me but they basically told me it would be a cold day in hell. So I took out student loans at a low interest rate to expand my business. That’s what student loans are for: to help the livelihood of the person going to school. I borrowed $5000, paid it back. Borrowed another $5000, paid it back. The interest rate was 5%, that’s was a lot less than what a business loan would have been if I could have gotten one.

Now I’m not a big advocator of debt, and personally I think it wrecks a lot of people and relationships, but if you have got the discipline, a situation that feels comfortable, a business plan, and you believe in it, then go for it.

In your opinion, what classifies as a good mix and a good master?

It all starts with the song. Is the song being conveyed? Can you hear the song? Is the emotion of the song conveyed? Are the vocals audible? One trend these days in indie music, if they don’t have money to record correctly, they trash it out and chalk it up to style. Now that doesn’t do you any good. It’s one thing to sound grungy and be creative about it but if you can’t understand what the singer is saying, then no go. It’s not helping you, it’s not helping the song, it’s not helping anybody listening to it. Vocals are important.

If it’s an instrumental project, as one of my colleagues would say, “Turn up your heroes.” Whenever a 4 minute song passes by, at any given moment in that song, if it’s well thought out and well produced, there’s something going on that should have your attention. That should be audible. If the listener has to strain to hear it, then that’s a mix problem. So a good balance of the instruments is always ideal, but you want whatever your focal point at any given moment to be turned up and transition gracefully throughout the song. It’s like a movie: you don’t want to lose anything in the plot.

Good mastering engineers are just basically polishing off what you have done. If it’s a good mix, they have to do very little. One thing I suggest, especially for young engineers, is get to know a mastering engineer, or someone who’s done it for a while. Get to know them, work with them, send them different versions of mixes and ask for feedback before you send them the final to master – that’s crucial. If you’re mixing an album on a small set of speakers, you probably have no idea that there could be a really bad 40Hz thing going on in there. It helps to talk to people, send them a mix, say, “Throw this up and tell me what you hear.” Most mastering engineers that are worth their salt have a pretty flat system. They’ll be able to tell you if the high end’s off, or the low end’s weird. Work with them, give them what they need to help you either polish what you’ve done or maybe enough take what you’ve done up a step from a B-level mix to an A-level mix.

How has this changed since the introduction of MP3s?

There’s a great book by Geoff Emerick called “Here, There and Everywhere: My life recording the music of The Beatles.” One of the ways you worked your way up at Abbey Road was cutting lacquers. You had to be familiar with that process. So by the time they got to that point that they were mixing records, they were very familiar with the limitations of the end-medium, the final product. They knew what they could and couldn’t do, and where the levels needed to be. They were very in touch with the destination medium. That way of thinking carried on all the way till we got to MP3. An MP3 is different, because now when we‘re mixing records, we mix it, we buy the best convertors, we do all this stuff, take it to a nice mastering house, and they up-sample it to 88.2 or 96k and they master it and dither it back down to 16-bit, before you know it we’ve got a red-book CD master….and what’s the first thing the band does? Rip it to a MP3 and throw it up online. Now, can you see the disconnect?

It used to be we knew the limitations of vinyl, cassette and CD, and everything was produced with those limitations in mind, all the way through the mastering process. Now we’re still focused on a CD generation in terms of production workflow, and then it gets ripped immediately to MP3. I think that’s interesting.

Some bands and artists have embraced this and in the mastering process, they’ve actually mastered the record for CD and then converted the mixes to 320-bit MP3s and then mastered the MP3s. When you’re mastering an MP3 versus a full-bandwidth file – it sounds different, you approach it differently and the compression you use is different. I’m not suggesting a call to arms where everybody does two different versions of their masters; but it’s something to think about.

What MP3s have done is made things convenient for everyone. Be in touch with what your MP3s sound like. Before you go to the mastering stage, convert the mixes to MP3 and listen to them on a big system, listen to them on a pair of headphones. What is it doing? Is it doing something you like to the mix? Can you not tell? Is it doing something you don’t like to the mix? Address that before you master the album.

The other thing I’ll say is going back to the loudness war. The loudness war was all about radio; it was all about how loud we could get it, even though the radio is going to compress it even more. Nowadays, with an iPod, if you don’t like the volume of something, what do you do? You just turn it up.

If you’re able to capture something that’s beautiful and dynamic, don’t sacrifice that just so it is as loud as the latest pop record – it’s not worth it. If it is a pop record and the dynamic’s aren’t important, sure squash it, have fun. People who buy pop records are looking for that.

Tell me about your upcoming book.

A lot of people talk very highly of their parents and I’m in that category. I am very lucky to have parents that cared a lot about me and supported me in what I wanted to do in my life. My mom is still with me and my sister but my dad has passed on. My dad was a quality management consultant. Through his work he developed leadership models, team-building formulas and toured around the world giving lectures and seminars to upper management at major organizations, some of them Fortune 500 companies. He gave me The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey when I was in high school and I gave book reports on it at the time. I was fed this stuff at a young age and I’m very grateful for it now, because it really is a part of who I am and it’s one of the reasons I manage to stay busy and relate to people the way that I do.

A couple of years ago, he’d already written several books so I went to him with an idea. I have never been able to find a music business book or resource that deals with the topics that he taught in the mainstream business world: people skills, creating a business plan, networking, making a personal mission statement, etc. This personal success philosophy isn’t mentioned in the music media either. If you Google how to be successful in the music business, you get information on how to make records or contact lists, etc. There is just not a lot of information out there that tells you how to talk with people and build bridges for yourself and your career. There’s a void there and they don’t teach it in music or audio schools. There was an emanate need for education on how to be successful as a creative person.

My dad and I wrote this book together before he passed away. I’ve been road-testing it over the past year. I’ve done a lot of seminars on entrepreneurship in the music business – lecturing, taking questions, and tweaking. I’m going to be releasing it in late 2011 or early 2012. The title of the book is “Sounds Great! Now What? A personal approach for success in today’s music business.”

It’s geared toward someone who wants to work in music. They go to school or put several years into the business and pay their dues one way or another. Then they come out on the other end, saying “Now what do I do?” We’ve tried to answer that question from the perspective that this all starts inside your own head. As we discussed earlier, this business is about relationships. Here’s how you get organized for yourself. Here’s how to get organized to work with other people. Now take that and combine it with your professional skill sets; whether you’re a musician, an engineer, a producer or a songwriter, etc. Put all those together and see how far it will take you.

To learn more about Mark and for contact info please visit his site: